Sammaditthi - Right View

Agga Maha Pandita

Mogok Sayadaw

Samma ditthi series,

The First of Five Talks on Sammaditthi

28th Feb., 1960

Translated by U Cakkinda

Edited by Dr. Jenny Ko Gyi and Florian Dobson

If asked what the difference between fools and the wise is - fools don’t practice magga brahmacariya (the noble path practice), but the wise do. Therefore for the wise who practice magga brahmacariya, there will be no rebirth in future existences, and thus aging, ailing and death in future existences will be no more. For the fools who don’t practice magga brahmacariya, there will be rebirth in future existences and as consequences there will be ageing, ailing and death. It is the wise who practise magga brahma cariya, and so for them there will be no more suffering (dukkha) in the future; it is the fools for whom there will be continuation of suffering into the future. Magga brahmacariya practice is that based on right view (samma ditthi).

If it is not understood how many types of samma ditthi there are, then it is not right.

Samma means right, ditthi is view.

There are five types of samma ditthi : -

1 kammasakkata sammaditthi - right view believing in deeds and their results

2 jhana sammaditthi - right view in connection with concentration (tranquility meditation)

3 vipassana sammaditthi - right view in connection with insight practice

4 magga sammaditthi - right view in connection with insight path

5 phala sammaditthi - right view in connection with fruition of insight

Kammasakkata sammaditthi is the right view believing in kammic deeds and its results. Kammasakkata sammaditthi exists outside the [time frame of the] sasana*(when it is not the time of the appearance of Buddhas, and so the teachings of a buddha cannot be heard) and inside the sasana (when teachings of a buddha can be heard). Kammasakkata sammaditthi is giving donations/charities, and due to these good deeds there will be the resultant bhava sampatti, bhoga sampatti – resulting in fortunate existences, with abundant wealth. This right view exists (in times) both within and outside the sasana.

Jhana sammaditthi is the path of concentration practice – samatha - and as a result of practising it, one can attain psychic powers and rebirth in form-formless - rupa arupa - (higher) brahma spheres. ___ Again it will still be the truth of suffering, dukkha sacca, so the result is not of much value. It is sammaditthi, no doubt, it sees the truth but not the ultimate truth. This samma ditthi also can exist inside and outside of the sasana,

The last three sammaditthi - vipassana sammaditthi, magga sammaditthi, and phala sammaditthi (insight, the path, the fruition), exist only within the time of the sasana. The first of these three, vipassana sammaditthi[TG1], serves to dispel sakkaya ditthi[1]. Both The Buddha and I (The Mogok Sayadaw) boldly guarantee that, with this practice, rebirth in the lower realms[2] - will not take place. In this very life, with Vipassana practice, one can attain nibbana, and so can become a sotapanna (the first stage of entry into the stream of noble persons), and then a sakadagami (the second stage of entry into the stream of noble persons), an anagami (the third) an arahant (the fourth and final stage of deliverance from all suffering). [3]

After the third sammaditthi, the fourth sammaditthi will be discussed. The first and the second will not be mentioned because they can exist outside (the time of) the sasana and will not be of much help in the practice to be liberated from the round of suffering - dukkha. The important thing is the third sammaditthi. Here it will be discussed how it can be done and go into practice,


According to the samyutta[4] commentator:

Because Vipassana sammaditthi sees the impermanent, suffering, and non-self nature of conditioned things [5] in the Dependent Origination - Paticca samuppada[6], sakkaya ditthi – identifying aggregates khandha as ‘I’, etc., - can be thoroughly dispelled. [These characteristics of] impermanence, suffering, and non-self can be contemplated upon whatever khandha (the five aggregates – the aggregates of feeling, perception, prompting, consciousness, and matter) arises, whether it is in the beginning, middle or at the end of the Paticcasamuppada[7]. If impermanence or arising passing of the aggregates - dhamma is seen in this way, the three wrong views can be dispelled.

Vipassana sammaditthi - insight, can clear away the three micchaditthi (wrong views) - sakkaya ditthi, sassata ditthi, uccheda ditthi (the wrong views of self, eternalism, annihilation). Therefore, this third sammaditthi is the most important one. The fourth sammaditthi, the path - magga sammaditthi is relatively easy; it arises in place of what has already been paved [by insight - Vipassana sammaditthi]. Magga sammaditthi, the path, is the stage where keen wisdom arises and sees cessation of all suffering- nibbana. The third stage of right view, sammaditthi, is none other than insight meditation practice, Vipassana.

__ To practice vipassana, contemplate the arising and passing [the impermanent characteristic] the aggregate/phenomenon (dhamma) that arises. Any phenomenon that arises - feeling - vedana, or consciousness - citta, the desire to eat, sleep, or work, , or the wandering mind, whatever citta (consciousness) arises [it has the characteristic of arising-passing, impermanence] when this is contemplated it is vipassana.

Turn your attention toward arising-passing (impermenance) of dhamma/phenomenon, and it becomes vipassana sammaditthi. It may be any citta (consciousness). There is no set citta that is to be observed, whatever citta arises, contemplate [its characteristic]. The dhamma that arises is paticca samuppada, it is khandha - aggregate. Khandha arises to pass away, arising-passing; apart from this dhamma there is no other dhamma[8]. If no citta (consciousness) arises then there is death. Observe the consciousness - citta that arises with insight - vipassana sammaditthi.


Seeing impermance (arising-passing) –anicca- is the eradication of the ditthi (wrong view) that will send beings to lower planes. __[Seeing the dhamma/phenomenon] arising, then passing away, [it is concluded that] this is not I, not mine, and _sakkaya ditthi - the view of self, has no chance to take hold. It is now known that it is only the dhamma/phenomenon, arising and passing away.

By observing arising-passing of aggregates/phenomenon - khandha, the wrong view of self sakkaya ditthi is being dispelled. This is what is stated in the samyutta commentary.

[10:00]Formerly it was said ‘contemplate to see impermanence - anicca’; this is not wrong but what is the purpose? To dispel sakkaya ditthi, the wrong view of self, that will send beings to woeful states - apaya.

One may not have reached the end of arising passing. While one is still in the stage of contemplating the arising and passing away of khandha, if the life span is cut off by upacchedaka kamma[9] and if one dies, one can be assured he will not be reborn in the woeful planes – apaya. By observing the passing away of the dhamma, sakkaya ditthi and sassata ditthi[10] are dispelled. Seeing the arising of aggregates (khandha) sakkaya ditthi - the wrong view of self, and uccheda ditthi - the wrong view of annihilation [11]are dispelled.

[11:10]In samyutta commentary, this vipassana sammaditthi is the dhamma that dispels sakkaya ditthi. Closure of the door to the four lower realms – apaya – starts here, with the seeing of arising-passing away (of the five aggregates - khandha). Vipassana samma ditthi cuts off sakkaya ditthi. Sakkaya ditthi is more important to be extinguished than the fire burning on your head. Even if there is a spear thrust in your chest, remove sakkaya ditthi first, becauses this is the dhamma that will hastily send beings to the woeful states. Even if magga nyana[12] is not attained, even if the supramundane lokuttara[13] nyana is not attained, if one dies with insight knowledge Vipassana nyana, in the next life one can be sure one will attain the first stage of enlightenment - sotapatti magga. This is mentioned in Anguttara Pali. In Anguttara contains teachings directly given by the Buddha, so pay close attention.

Don’t fail to develop insight - vipassana sammaditthi. It means trying to dispel the wrong view of self - sakkaya ditthi, don’t fail to dispel sakkaya ditthi. This is the dhamma (that can be found only) within the (time of) sasana.

The permanent residence for all beings is the woeful state - apaya, because of view of self - sakkaya ditthi. It is certain sakkayaditthi has never before been dispelled. It is certain Vipassana has never before been practised (in the many existences in the samsara cycle of death and rebirth).


Without dispelling sakkaya ditthi there is no time when one can take a rest and relax. Therefore keep aside all worldly attachments such as business, sons, daughters, family, and relatives. First dispel sakkaya ditthi. Don’t say [caring for] sons, daughters, relatives and business is [obligatory], the only thing that is obligatory is to dispel sakkaya ditthi. As a result of neglecting family and business [to follow Vipassana practice to dispel sakkaya ditthi], you may only be disliked. But you will not go to woeful states apaya. It is worse not to see arising-passing, not to dispel sakkaya ditthi, than to be hated.


In Anguttara commentary, it says he who has sakkaya ditthi is like a stone thrown into water. It will never come up. Being hated by [your] sons and daughters, or having no possessions is not [nearly] as important as sinking and not coming back up. They become your family, relatives, neighbours, possessions, only in this life. You are considerate of those but you don’t have compassion for yourself. Being considerate of others, it is like saying, ‘It’s alright if I have to result in woeful realms.’ You’re ignorant, you are unknowing and it is [such a pity/so bad]. Look at your age; you have one eye cocked toward the cemetery. You’re growing old. That is why in the Samyutta Pali the Buddha said, ‘Sakkaya ditthi is more important to extinguish than a fire on your head. Even if there is a spear in your chest, remove sakkaya ditthi first’.

How is this to be done?

Arising and passing away of the consciousness that has arisen is to be contemplated.

Differentiating mind and matter (namarupa) is dispelling wrong view through sannya (perception).

Contemplating the arising and passing away of mind and matter is (pannya – wisdom.


With vipassana insight knowledge, with vipassana sammaditthi, with right view that is insight, you are dispelling ditthi. Know your own affair. In all the world-cycles you have missed all the buddhas because you have been in hell. Who sent you to hell? Sakkaya ditthi sent you there. If sakkaya ditthi is not dispelled it is sure you will miss every buddha that appears in the world. Whatever wish you may make, if you don’t get rid of sakkaya ditthi you will not get it. Wishing is only ordinary but this sakkaya ditthi is the true thing that will send you to the lower realms. Pay heed to this dhamma that will definitely send you to woeful states apaya. You have made wishes to see the Buddha that will appear, or to give alms-donation to the Buddha that will be enlightened. But you have not done anything to stop this dhamma that will shield you from seeing the Buddha. What is this (dhamma)? (It is) sakkaya ditthi. Sakkaya ditthi has repeatedly been sending you to the four woeful states.


Throughout the samsara cycle of death and rebirth, how many buddhas have appeared? As many as the grains of sand in the Ganga river. Why did you miss them all? Because you were in woeful planes - apaya - sakkaya ditthi has been sending you to apaya throughout (the samsara). There will be as many future buddhas also, but if you don’t dispel sakkaya ditthi [you will miss them as well].

Don’t extinguish the fire on your head first. Your house may be on fire, your clothes may be on fire, (but) dispel sakkaya ditthi first. Because Vipassana was never practiced, throughout the samsara, you have repeatedly lived in the woeful states apaya – this the Buddha definitely taught us in Suttanipata Pali. If you do not start Vipassana practice now, (you) will find nothing worse than this. It is not important (if you) do not have enough for (a place to live), to eat, etc. Still having the seed that will send you to apaya in (you) is the important thing.


Because of sakkaya ditthi all sixty two wrong views ditthi are there. Because of this sakkaya ditthi you have missed the buddhas as many as the grains of sand in the Ganga River. And you have missed (their) teachings. You have lived with dukkha (suffering) all along. In this life, know the arising of aggregates or mind-matter -khandha, know the dependent arising - paticca samuppada[14]. Know the nature of khandha Paticcasamuppada that is arising and passing away. You have to know khandha paticca samuppada otherwise there will arise (wrong view perceiving mind matter or nama rupa as) man, and beings. For example, the ear consciousness [that is arising now,] this consciousness is the beginning of paticca samuppada. (You have to) know this is the Paticcasamuppada dhamma. You have to know this beginning, know it is [the arising of] dhamma. Only then it will not be perceived as ‘I’ or ‘others’. [Observe] from the beginning with nana (wisdom), then (perceiving as) ‘I’ and ‘others’ will be dispelled. It is [only the] dhamma arising, then the dhamma [passing away, knowing it is] anicca dhamma, there is no ‘I’ no ‘mine’.


Within the sasana, there is nothing more important than practicing vipassana,. Practicing Vipassana means dispelling sakkaya ditthi. Instead of having meals twice a day, eat once a day, if the roof is leaking, leave it, it doesn’t matter; it wont send (you) to apaya, getting wet will be the worst thing that can happen. But if sakkaya ditthi is not dispelled, the resultant rebirth will be in apaya. Don’t think this is a [minor issue], (sakkaya ditthi is) the root of all akusala (evil or unwholesome deeds). You say you are earning money ‘for myself’ ‘for my sons and daughters’. [Saying it is] ‘for myself’ is ditthi – wrong view, for ‘my sons and daughters’ is tanha - attachment. This is based on ditthi. Due to the power of this (wrong view) (you try to make money) till (you) become exhausted. And you don’t have a day’s rest, you are exhausted and becoming old. Diseases are (starting to torment you). Everyday you are in this (trying to make money), today, tomorrow and the next day. Because there is ‘I’, (you are) trying to make things mine. If ‘I’ ditthi is not dispelled, trying (to gain things and make them) mine will go on


Everyday you sit at your shop turning prayer beads[15]; you are doing this only because you want customers to come to your shop. You are doing this with craving - tanha. You are trying to make (riches become) mine. Even while taking refuge in the buddha, dhamma, and samgha [16], you will say business is doing well because of this (taking refuge in the buddha, dhamma, samgha), and sakkaya ditthi stealthily comes in - you take refuge [hoping] your business will be successful. So long as it is not dispelled, true wisdom - nana - will not be there, it will be mixed [at best]. And because of ignorance there will be conditioned ‘doing’ - avijja paccaya sankhara. Even wholesome actions - kusala sankhara [17], arise out of ignorance. Then follows sankhara paccaya vinnanam - dependent upon conditioned activities, there arises (rebirth) consciousness[18] and there will be jati – rebirth. You will fall into the crevice of rebirth - jati.

Even when building toilets (as donations in monasteries, public places, etc.), you will say this direction (for construction of toilets) is lucky[19] for me; you are choosing the lucky direction. Even when (you are) donating a toilet, you will say this is an unlucky direction for me, it will endanger my life. Even though these are wholesome/meritorious actions, they are conditional activities (sankhara governed by ignorance – not knowing mind matter, noble truths, etc.). And you will fall into the crevice of rebirth – jati. This is the work of sakkaya dhitti. If this (sakkaya ditthi) is not dispelled, any (thing) that is done will give an ugly result. You may want to donate a toilet, or a stand for drinking water pot[20], or an ornamental pillar near a stupa. Even while erecting a pillar for a stupa, etc., you are choosing an auspicious direction, (you) should be worried that (you) will become enemies of the dhamma. If sakkaya ditthi is not dispelled, whatever kusala is done, it is all mixed with akusala. Black spots in white is never a good sight to see[21].

So when (you get) results, they cannot be pure, because when you made good deeds, they were mixed with sakkaya ditthi. Then (you complain that you have bad results).


In every place when it (sakkayaditthi) is there, in no way will you attain nibbana. Why can (beings) not attain nibbana? Is it because of dana (donations/charity)? Dana can send you there (to nibbana), but sakkaya ditthi pulls you back down. Sila (morality, observing precepts) can also send you there but sakkaya ditthi pulls you down. ‘I will observe precepts to live a long life’, you say. If you want to live long, just live a long life, no need to go to nibbana. You will not attain nibbana by merely observing precepts. Who wants to live long? Sakkaya ditthi ‘I’ wants to live long. [In this way,] whatever you do it is mixed. When you are about to go up it pulls you down. ‘I am not saying dana and sila will not get you there, but if there is sakkaya ditthi you will never get there. Only if this sakkaya ditthi is dispelled, whatever you do – dana, sila - charity, morality, etc., - will be governed by nyana wisdom; micchaditthi (wrongviews) will be dispelled and sammaditthi arises.’


What is the thing to be done urgently?

It is to practice vipassana. Then it is very easy. What does Vipassana do?

Vipassana dispels sakkaya ditthi. The beginning of the path to nibbana is Vipassana; if you do not start from here, then you will be gone. The lord buddha himself told us this in Samyutta pali, ‘katamo ca bhikkhave asankhata gami maggo’... ‘which dhamma is the true dhamma that will definitely send you on the good path to nibanna?’ The answer is Vipassana.. This is the true path to nibanna because sakkaya ditthi is dispelled. Now you understand it, now it is important how you will contemplate khandha (mind-matter complex or the five aggregates). Now you know the work that is to be done without fail. (You) do not have to look for it elsewhere. Open your eyes and eye consciousness arises, observe (its) arising and passing away. Listen, and ear consciousness arises and passes away. Know it, this is dispelling sakkaya ditthi. At the nose, smell, and you cognize a good smell; observe its arising and passing away. On the body where it is itchy – unpleasant sensation, contemplate the arising and passing away of itchiness. Or where there is a cool breeze felt on the body– pleasant sensation – contemplate the arising and passing away of the pleasant feeling at that place. Pleasant or unpleasant, observe its arising passing and ditthi is dispelled. Knowing arising uccheda ditthi (wrong view of annihilation) is dispelled; knowing passing away sassata ditthi (wrong view of eternalism) and sakkaya ditthi are dispelled.


[In summary,] what do we say the path to nibbana to nibbana is? It is Insight - Vipassana. Why is Vipassana nyana (knowledge/wisdom) the path to nibbana? Because it dispels sakkaya ditthi.

If wrong view can be dispelled, right view arises [automatically]; you don’t have to wish for it to arise. Right view is [knowing] there is arising-passing only, and that there is no ‘I’, ‘others’, ‘man’ or ‘beings’. When samma ditthi comes in, (you) do not have to wish for attainment of nibbana. Vipassana it the true path leading to nibbana, the Buddha has said.

The third sammaditthi (Vipassana sammaditthi) is therefore very important. For how long are we to practise this third sammaditthi, you will ask.

Repeatedly contemplate the arising and passing away (of aggregates - khandha), then (you will come to) loathe (get bored with) it. Contemplate (the arising, passing away of khandha) more so that you will come to loathe it more. This will be the end of insight meditation wisdom (Vipassana nana).

Seeing arising-passing, then coming to loathe (get bored with) it, [one comes to] the end of the third sammaditthi. Then comes the fourth sammaditthi – magga sammaditthi (the right view of the path leading to the cessation of suffering).


Maggasammaditthi is the eightfold noble path (eight magganga), and this sammaditthi is the leader in the eight magganga[22].

How is magga sammaditthi different from Vipassana sammaditthi?

Vipassana sammaditthi is observing arising-passing of khandha, and the potential [is limited to] dispelling sakkaya ditthi. The power of Vipassana sammaditthi ends here. Vipassana sammaditthi sees the arising and passing away of khandha and therefore sakkaya ditthi is dispelled. This is the function of Vipassana sammaditthi, don’t say this is ordinary right view. There are many kinds of right view.

What does magga sammaditthi do? It is also sammaditthi. Samma is right, ditthi is view – viewing rightly. How does this (sammaditthi) see? And how does the other (sammaditthi) see?

But with magga sammaditthi, arising-passing of khandha is no longer seen, and [awareness of] nibbana arises. That is the function of magga sammaditthi.

After Vipassana sammaditthi, (magga sammaditthi) is the point where wisdom takes hold of. The arising-passing of dhamma going on and on, like a Ferris wheel turning, is cut off. [At the time arising-passing is no more seen. It is left behind and the magga sammaditthi that sees nibbana arises. This is from Samyutta commentary.


The wisdom that sees nibbana, and not sees arising passing (of khandha), is magga sammaditthi. Magga sammaditthi does not see arising passing. If it still sees the arising passing away, then it will still be Vipassana samma ditthi. If (you are) seeing arising-passing, (you) will be turning attention toward sankhara (conditioned) dhamma[23]. Only then this will go in line with the Patthana Pali (The Teachings of Causal Relations) – nibbanam maggassa. Nibbana is arammana paccayena - object for insight path - magga. Nibbana is related to magga (path) (Nibbana is object - arammana, of magga ). Magga sees nibbana, magga sees the cessation of suffering/dukkha. This is magga sammaditthi right view of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. It is the wisdom that sees the end of arising-passing. The end of arising – passing is nibbana. The wisdom that sees the end of arising passing is maggasammaditthi – the path leading to the cessation of suffering. There is no need to wish for magga to be attained, you have only to diligently practice vipassana sammaditthi and, [as a result] magga sammaditthi will come [automatically]. Vipassana sammaditthi is the forerunner in attainment of magga sammaditthi. Only Vipassana sammaditthi is important; the others are not as important. Just go on practicing Vipassana. Whatever dhamma may arise in you, whatever citta (mind/consciousness) may arise in you, just go on contemplating its arising and passing away. Vipassana sammaditthi sees only arising and passing away (of aggregates – khandha). This is the only job of (Vipassana sammaditthi). When (contemplation of arising passing) is repeatedly done, wrong view is automatically being dispelled.

Magga sammaditthi doesn’t see arising, it doesn’t see passing away, it only sees extinction of vatta[24] that has been going round. You have been contemplating arising-passing. At one time arising-passing will no longer be seen, the vipaka vatta that is going round and round is not longer seen. Vipaka vatta is physical phenomena - rupadhamma - and mental phenomena - namadhamma - arising-passing. Repeated arising-passing is vipaka vatta repeatedly going round. When magga sammaditthi is about to arise this vipaka vatta wheel stops turning [which means]; arising-passing is no longer seen.__


Don’t think nibanna will appear like a grand luminous ball, it is only the cessation of arising and passing away. Knowing [experiencing] the nature of cessation is magga nyana[25].

Vipassana sammaditthi sees arising and passing away (of khandha) only.

But magga sammaditthi does not see arising and passing away, but sees nibbana.

The two views are very different.

For the meditiator (for you) to know better I will mention Milindapanha. Though Vipassana sammaditthi and magga sammaditthi are both sammaditthi, they are very much different. Vipassana sammaditthi seeing rightly is one thing; magga sammaditthi seeing rightly is another thing. King Milinda was a very wise king; even arahants had to flee because they could not answer his questions.

One day, the venerable Nagasena[26] came. They had fulfilled their respective wishes in the samsara.

King Milinda asked, 'Tell me how nibbana is seen. Because, venerable Nagasena, I believe you are an arahant and you have seen nibbana. Please tell me how to see nibbana, together with the method of practice.’

If the venerable did not give an answer, King Milinda would say there was no nibbana. Now this is concerned with five sammaditthi - vipassana and magga sammaditthi.

‘Does nibbana exist?’ asked the king.

‘Yes,’ replied Nagasena

‘Was it in the past, or is it in the present or the future?’

‘None of the three’.

‘Then, if nibbana is not in any of these periods, it doesn’t exist,’ claimed the king. To this the venerable answered,

‘If nibbana was in the past then only the people of the past could have experienced it. If it was in the future people of the present would only die (in vain) and only those in the future would experience it. Nibbana is kala vimutti, (nothing related

to/ or free of time factor), it is free from the three periods, yet it does exist.’

‘To give you an example, in the past there were no matches. Two bamboos had to be rubbed to get fire. Rubbing two bamboo sticks, you get fire. Is the flame from the past, or is it from the present or future? In the bamboo it is only bamboo, there is no fire. In the bamboo there never was fire. But because of effort (man exerts), (man) gets fire. If the (bamboos) are rubbed for a long time, (you) get fire.’

‘So also, if you practice vipassana, nibbana will appear, but it is not in the three periods[27]. If you do not practice, it will not come. If you only go and offer flowers and water to the Buddha’s statue and pray ‘please give me nibbana’, you won’t get it. Do the bamboo sticks produce flames automatically, or do you have to rub them together [vigorously]? If you just put the bamboo sticks on the ground, will the fire start? Only if you rub them until they reach the condition under which they will ignite, then you will have fire. Likewise, practice vipassana sammaditthi and observe arising-passing until arising passing ceases and nibbana appears.’


For those who practice until nibbana appears parami[28] is not needed, parami has already been fulfilled. This is from Anguttara pali (teachings about parami - fulfillments). For those who practice there is nibbana. Rubbing bamboo temporarily no fire will come. There is fire only because of the effort of the one who rubs the bamboo. This is the fire that is free from the three periods. For the Universal monarch, the monarch’s vehicle (which has the power to travel in the sky) does not appear automatically. The monarch, wearing white robes, has to observe the five precepts and radiate brahma vihara dhamma (metta, karuna, mudita, upekkha – loving kindness, compassion, joy, equanimity) toward all; and the wheel appears in the sky. It is not there beforehand. Only when the king practices the conditioning wholesome deeds, does the vehicle appears.

[50:00]Likewise, practice the dhamma that will help you attain nibbana.

Merely beckoning to nibbana there will not be fruition, it will only cause others to smile. Consider it shameful. Previously, because you didn’t know, you thought nibbana was something to be wished for. Now you know, and you have to practice.

Does nibbana exist or not? It is there. With Vipassana sammaditthi, practice hard, practice diligently. Repeatedly contemplating arising-passing (of aggregates - khandha), is practicing vipassana magga (insight meditation path). At first it is contemplating arising-passing, then the observer wisdom/knowledge (nyana) turns toward cessation of arising-passing. At first it was Vipassana sammaditthi. Then it develops and turns toward cessation of arising passing. There is no arising. There is no passing away.

From arising-passing toward where there is no arising-passing, this is the attainment of nibbana. And you will be aware that there is no arising-passing - then there is no suffering/dukkha. Cessation of dukkha is nibbana. Is nibbana a town, a city or the cessation of arising-passing? Knowing the cessation of arising-passing is magga nyana. You have to practice so that Vipassana nyana develops to higher knowledges_.

There is no need to speculate which stage of insight you have attained. This is not like climbing a flight of stairs. If (you are) climbing stairs, (you will) say you have reached the seventh step, or the sixteenth. But with the progressive stages of insight wisdom, you won’t be able to distinguish them. [That can be done only by the venerable Sariputta[29]]. (The defining of stages) mentioned in patisambhida magga is what the venerable Sariputta describes his (own experience of) discerning insight wisdom. With development of insight knowledge - Vipassana nyana, it turns abruptly turns toward magga nyana – the ven. Nagasena says. The object of vipassana nyana is arising-passing; the object of magga nana is cessation of arising-passing.

While contemplating arising passing, the wisdom turns toward where there is no arising passing. This is Vipassana nana progressing on to magga nyana- this is the answer given by the Venerable Nagasena to King Milinda.

[1] The wrong view perceiving the mind-matter complex as ‘I’, ‘me’, man, woman, beings, etc.

[2] the realms of hell, animals, peta (or hungry beings), and asurakaya (where beings enjoy sensual pleasures during the day and suffer at night),

[3] contemplating the arising and passing away of mind and matter.

[4] Connected discourses of The Buddha

[5] the dhamma has a wide range of meaning – i.e., the Buddha’s teachings, the course of nature.

[6] The doctrine of dependent origination taught by The Buddha


[8] i-Contemplation of the arising and passing away of consciousness when sense object comes into contact with the corresponding sense door, e.g., the visible object with the eye, sound with the ear, etc.

ii contemplation of the arising and passing away of pleasant, unpleasant, indifferent feelings, thereby cutting off the link between feeling and desire.

iii-contemplating the arising and passing away of physical, verbal, mental actions, thereby cutting off the link between deeds and future rebirth.

[9] The kamma that cuts off a life-span, even though the full life-span has not been lived, i.e., sudden and violent deaths like drowning, death in plane crashes, car accidents, etc.

[10] the wrong view of eternalism. Forgetting to be mindful of the impermanence of mind matter, this wrong view takes place. It will be taken that it is the same ‘I’ as a child, that it is the same ‘I’ that was a teenager, and the same ‘I’ as an adult. Many Asian Buddhists do meritorious deeds believing it will be the same ‘I’ in future existences that will enjoy the fruit of good deeds done in this life.

[11] Wrong view of annihilation –that with death there is total cessation of mind matter nama rupa and thus there needs be no fear of having to pay back for the wrong doings committed in this life (wrong doings have been committed in all existences in the samsara – unending chain of life and rebirth) . With uccheda ditthi, there is wrong belief that one will not have to pay back for the evil deeds such as killing living beings (including small animals), cheating, adultery, etc.

[12] the stage of knowledge where one reaches the path leading to the cessation of all suffering.

[13] Supramundane stage, where one has achieved the state higher than worldly conditions.

[14] The law of dependent arising of the five aggregates (feeling, perception, prompting or volition, consciousness or mind; and matter – four mental and one physical or matter, hence the five aggregates). Mind arises dependent upon the contact or impingement of sense door and sense object, e.g., sound and ear door.

[15] A practice commonly seen in Myanmar Buddhists.

[16] Disciples of the buddha – Buddhist monks.

[17] Giving alms donations/charities, but governed by ignorance – not knowing the mind-matter aggregates, the noble truth, the dependent origination, etc. Then these good deeds will only condition future rebirth in happy abodes.

[18] Dependent upon conditional activities (governed by ignorance), there arises rebirth consciousness.

[19] many Asians believe in astrology, and choose things and directions according to their lucky stars, as suggested by astrologers.

[20] Another practice of donation, more commonly seen some decades ago in Myanmar.

[21] Akusala is taken as being synonymous with black, and so is called black kamma.

[22] According to the Teachings of the Ven. Mogok Sayadaw, magga sammaditthi [is observed with] eight magginga [whereas vipassana sammaditthi is observed with only five].

[23] Sankhara dhamma -

[24] the rounds of resultant rebirths, going on and on in the samsara cycle.

[25] magga nana – same as magga sammaditthi

[26] according to the respective wishes, made many existences ago, by the King Milinda-to-be, and the Ven. Nagasena-to-be, they resulted together in their last existences as the king and the arahant.

[27] Past, present, future.

[28] To fulfill deeds and practices in the many existences in the samsara cycle with the aim of attaining the final destination, such as buddhahood.

[29] The Buddha’s chief disciple, who, apart from the Buddha, possessed the highest wisdom amongst all.

[TG1]Vipassana sammaditthi brings 100000 times more benefit than sammaditthi 1 and 2 [3:00]


Post a Comment